Let’s start with that what is “PANCHANG” and how it plays a vital role in our routine works and major events of our lives since ancient past?
Most people buy “Panchang” every year for various reasons like festival dates, yearly horoscope, muhurtham for house warming, upanayana Sanskar, weddings, naming ceremony, etc.
As all religious and holy ceremonies are done according to months, Karna, Vara (divas), nakshtra (star), Yog (good combination of planetary position) and Tito indicated in Panchang so it plays a great role in Hindu religion, that the ceremony has to be done within Shubh muhurat which may results you to succeed in aspect whatever you did in Shubh muhurat.
Shubh Muhurat or Lagna is the time when the planetary position for an individual is in the most favorable position to get the more and more positive energy from a planet to succeed in his work. That’s why all of us consults “Panchangam” to derive wedding dates, anusthan dates for various ceremonies in the life of individuals and corporate collaborations etc.
Hindu calendar which is the back bone of “Panchangm”, followed the cycles of the Moon and the months, based on lunar months which vary from 27 to 29 solar days. The lunar year of twelve months consists of 354 solar days where as a solar year consists of 365 days, i.e. Divergence of 11 days and to justify the difference of 11 days between lunar and solar year, Hindu “Panchangam” includes both Solar and Luni-Solar in it, but basically Luni-Solar calendar is used which is designed to keep phase with the tropical year infarct Solar Sidereal year, using lunar months Chaitra, Vaishakha, Jyestha, Ashadha, Shravana, Bhadrapada, Ashwayuja (Ashwin), Kartik, Margashirsha, Pausha, Magha, Phalguna. Luni-Solar calendars are of two types i.e. Amavasyant (ending with Amavasya and their months will start from Shukla paksha and ends with Krishna paksha having Poornima in the middle.) And Purnimant (ending with Purnima and the month will start with Krishna paksha and ends with Shukla paksha) depending upon the ending of the lunar month as, either lunar month may end on Amavasya (New Moon) or on the Purnima (Full Moon).
Now finally from above explanation and coming back to the point we conclude that the “Panchangam” is the summary of mathematical and astrological calculation according to specific time, planetary position , specific location and date etc. And the term “Panchang” originate from the Sanskrit word “Panchangam” i.e Pancha = five and endgame = limb which refers to the five branches of the astrological calendar based on karma, Vara, Nakshtra Yog and Tithi.
Panchangam is also pronounced as Jantri, panjika, Panchang etc in different parts of India. A complete Panchang consist of a variety of details about Rahu Kalam, Yamagandam, Gulika Kalam, Durmuhurtham, Varjyam, Lagna Pravesh tables, daily planetary transits, and other information which basically predicted as per solar months as well as lone – solar months and their opening rules.